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PriorLiving Schweiz: Osteoporose

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Osteoporose

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Osteoporose

Was ist Osteoporose?

Gesunde Wirbelsäule (links) und eingebrochene, geschrumpfte und verformte Wirbelsäule bei Osteoporose (rechts)

Osteoporose ist die häufigste Stoffwechselerkrankung des Knochens. Sie ist gekennzeichnet durch einen Verlust an Knochenmasse. Dadurch nehmen die Stabilität und Belastbarkeit der Knochen ab, und schon geringfügige Anlässe können die Knochen brechen lassen. Gefährdete Stellen sind Hand- und Fußgelenke sowie die Schenkelhalsknochen. Einbrüche an den Wirbelkörpern werden oft nicht bzw. erst spät wahrgenommen. Der Körper sakt zusammen, die Atmung kann zunehmend erschwert sein.

Knochenbrüche lösen starke bis hin zu stärksten Schmerzen aus, die unbedingt behandelt werden müssen.

In Deutschland leiden etwa acht Millionen Menschen an Knochenschwund. Über 50 sind bereits mehr als ein Viertel betroffen, davon 83 Prozent Frauen. Jeder sechste Patient ist ein Mann.

Die primäre Osteoporose...
... stellt mit etwa 95 Prozent die häufigste Form dar. Die Ursachen sind komplex (siehe unten) und eng mit Alterungsprozessen verbunden. Ein gewissens Maß an Knochenschwund tritt praktisch bei jedem Menschen auf.

Die sekundäre Osteoporose...
... ist eine Begleiterscheinung anderer Krankheiten bzw. deren Behandlung. Häufige Auslöser sind Schilddrüsenüberfunktion, lang dauernde Kortisonbehandlung, Zuckerkrankheit, chronische Magen-Darm-Krankheiten oder bestimmte Tumorerkrankungen.

 

Ursachen der Osteoporose

Ursachen:  

  • Alterung: Verschiedene Alternsprozesse führen ab 30 allmählich zum Ausdünnen der Knochen. Die wichtigste Altersuhr, die die Entstehung der Osteoporose forciert ist die Menopause der Frau.
  • Menopause: Durch den drastischen Hormonabfall (vor allem von Östrogenen) nach den Wechseljahren sind Frauen generell von einem stark erhöhten Risiko betroffen.
  • Bewegungsmangel: Der wichtigste Einzelfaktor für die Ausbildung und Erhaltung starker Knochen ist die Höhe der täglichen Belastung, der die Knochen ausgesetzt sind. BEACHTE: Ohne ausreichende Belastungsreize vor allem durch Alltagsaktivitäten können auch moderne medikamentöse Therapien nicht ausreichend wirken.
  • Es gibt eine genetisch bedingte Veranlagung, schneller oder früher Knochenschwund zu entwickeln. Allerdings ist dieser Faktor nicht ausgeprägt, so dass die anderen genannten Ursachen weitaus bedeutsamer sind.
  • Vitamin D3 Mangel: Ein Mangel dieses Vitalstoffes wurde erst in jüngster Zeit als wichtiger eigenständiger Risikofaktor bestätigt. Vitamin D kann vom Körper bei intensiver Sonneneinstrahlung selbst gebildet werden. Allerdings sind entsprechend notwendige Intensitäten in unseren Breitengraden selbst bei regelmäßigem Sonnenbad nicht zu erreichen. Entsprechend sind in Deutschland Mangelzustände häufig und ausgeprägt.
  • Ernährung: Essentiell für den Knochenstoffwechsel ist eine gute Versorgung mit speziellen Nährstoffen, vor allem das Mineral Calcium aber auch Magnesium sowie die Spurenelemente Bor, Flur und Strontium. Negativ auf den Knochenstoffwechsel wirkt sich Rauchen und Alkohol aus.

Risiko - Warnzeichen

Risiko-Warnzeichen

Eine eingehende ärztliche Untersuchung sollten Sie ins Auge fassen, wenn:

  • Knochen schon aus geringfügigem Anlass brachen,
  • Kortison länger als sechs Monate hoch dosiert eingenommen wurde,
  • die Monatsblutung länger als ein Jahr ausblieb ( Schwangerschaften zählen nicht mit),
  • die Wechseljahre bereits vor dem 45. Lebensjahr begannen,
  • eine chronische Darmerkrankung besteht, die eine ausreichende Aufnahme von Kalzium verhindert,
  • die Körpergröße um mehr als fünf Zentimeter abgenommen hat,
  • bei Männern ein Mangel des Geschlechtshormons Testosteron vorliegt,
  • Verwandte ersten Grades bereits an Osteoporose erkrankten.

Vorbeugende Massnahmen

Vorbeugung
 

Das sollten Sie tun, um starke Knochen aufzubauen und zu erhalten:

  • Sorgen Sie täglich (!) für eine ausreichend hohe Belastung Ihrer Knochen (Treppensteigen, Haus- und Gartenarbeit, Wandern usw.)
  • Ernähren Sie sich kalziumreich (Milchprodukte, Hering).
  • Nehmen Sie ausreichend Vitamin D zu sich. Durch Aufenthalte im Freien und Sonnenbäder kann der Körper den Vitalstoff zwar selbst herstellen, in Deutschland ist diese Eigenversorgung aufgrund der nördlichen Breite praktisch immer unzureichend (Im Zweifel oder bei vorliegender Osteoporose Blutwert bestimmen lassen). Reich an Vitamin D sind echter Lachs, Maktrelen und Hering (mind. 2 bis 4 Mal pro Woche) Häufig kann nur eine gezielte Ergänzung eine optimale Versorgung sicher stelen (ausreichend hoch dosierte Präparate gibt es nur in der Apotheke).
  • Streben Sie generell eine vitalstoffreiche Ernährung an (vor allem Gemüse und Obst). Am Knochenstoffwechsel sind nämlich auch Vitamin C, die Tocopherole (Vitamin E), Zink, Silizium, Mangan und andere Nährstoffe beteiligt.

Dieser Text erhebt keinen Anspruch auf Vollständigkeit. Die Informationen stellen keine Empfehlung oder Bewerbung des genannten Präparates oder der Präparate und Substanzen dar. Die Informationen ersetzen nicht die fachliche Beratung durch einen Arzt oder Apotheker. Für konkrete und individuelle Fragen zur Therapie wenden Sie sich bitte an Ihren Arzt.


Quelle : www.dgk.de